Search This Blog

Blog Archive

Tuesday, May 21, 2024

Mat 21, 2024: “Probability ≠,≮, nor ≯ Possibility ... and That's Pretty Neat!”

 

 

T   H   E   B   L   A   C   K   M   E   T   A   !

 

Relevance, Self-Awareness, and Self-CARE-ness ... Music, Mindful, and YOUR META!



Live and streaming at Radiokingston.org | 107.FM and 1490AM, Tuesdays, 1-3 p.m.

 

 


 

It's YOUR NEW YEAR and YOUR SUPERCHARGED META!


“‘With a Certain Element of Doubt...’: Bertrand Russell in His Own Words and My Own”

 

&

 

“WHAT PERIOD ARE WE IN?”


 

And, a META SPOTLIGHT on: “Sherlock Holmes, We Never Knew Ye....”



TUNE IN and TURN UP YOUR Black Meta!



 
 

—Your Black Meta!


TheBlackMetaWKNY@Gmail.com

 
 
 
 
 






 

FreedomWalker’s Sources, Citations, Credits, and Links



COFFEE & GREEN TEA COMBO

 

  • https://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/solution-found-for-lack-of-natural-vanilla-a-way-to-create-it-from-plant-waste-in-one-step/

 

 

THE SPRUCE


  • https://www.christianity.com/wiki/end-times/what-does-the-bible-say-about-the-end-of-the-world.html
  • https://www.mccormick.com/articles/mccormick/22-recipes-to-add-fruits-and-vegetables-in-your-di
  • https://jsyfruitveggies.org/recipes-all/https://thenaturalnurturer.com/15-fruit-and-veggie-smoothies/
  • https://pamelasalzman.com/kale-pesto-recipe/
  • https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/tea-consumption-by-country
  • https://coffeeaffection.com/tea-statistics/
  • https://velju.com/hospitality-job-description/waiter-waitress/pros-and-cons/
  • https://www.coindesk.com/markets/2020/05/22/10-years-after-laszlo-hanyecz-bought-pizza-with-10k-bitcoin-he-has-no-regrets/
  • https://www.theseoldcookbooks.com/classic-vanilla-pudding/
  • https://www.thepioneerwoman.com/food-cooking/recipes/a36821083/paloma-cocktail-recipe/
  • https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/forty-years-after-his-death-harvey-milk-s-legacy-still-n940356
  • https://parade.com/425018/parade/why-we-love-sherlock-holmes/





K-TOWN NEWS


  • The Daily Freeman
  • Kingston Happenings
  • Radiokingston.org




SOMETHING DIFFERENT: WHAT PERIOD ARE WE IN?

 
  • VIDEO: "Inside The Negro Middle Class.1968. 1:30:07. https://youtu.be/nHcusYwUofg?si=TE6KeRIXsrt3JDiy
 



MINDFUL MUSEUM


  • None for this week.





 

beetle's Sources, Citations, Credits, and Links

 

(Re)Sources for Meta on the Meta: “‘With a Certain Element of Doubt...’: Bertrand Russell in His Own Words and My Own” and The Black X-Files: “Teapots and Paradoxes, Skepticism and Acceptance, and the Burden of Proof”



MULTIMEDIA



  1. "Bertrand Russell Interview on Philosophy (1960)." Philosophy Overdose, Youtube. [13:06] A reupload from the previous channel of a brief interview with Bertrand Russell. More Short Videos and Clips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhP9EhPApKE8v8UVlc7JuuNHwvhkaOvzc. January 11, 2002. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5IEYW5wuK3Y
  2. "What is Russell's Teapot? (Thought Experiment)." Carneades.org, Youtube. [3:17] A quick explanation of Russell's Teapot, a thought experiment demonstrating that the burden of proof rests on the claimant.  Sponsors: Joshua Furman, Joshua Opell, NBA_Ruby, Eugene SY, Antoinemp1, Antibody, Ismail Fagundes, Adrien Ecoffet, Tom Amedro, Christopher McGevna, Joao Sa, and Dennis Sexton.  Thanks for your support! February 28, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FsN3DCCTqpo



Articles, Bibliographies, Resources & Websites

 

 
  • “I think the sort of philosophy I believe in is useful in this way: That it enables people to act with vigor when they're not absolutely certain that is the right action. I think nobody should be certain of anything. If you're certain, then you're certainly wrong, because nothing deserves certainty. So, why not hold all one's beliefs with a certain element of doubt. And one ought to be able to act vigorously in spite of the doubt. After all, this is what a general does when he's planning a battle. He doesn't quite know what the enemy would do but if he's a good general, he guesses right. If he's a bad general, he guesses wrong. But one has, in practical life, to act upon probabilities. And what I should look to philosophy to do, is to encourage people to act with vigor without complete certainty.” Bertrand Russell on Philosophy, 1960 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5IEYW5wuK3Y)
  • "What is the closest thing to Earth ever discovered in the universe?" Quora.com. Accessed April 27, 2024. https://extremelyinterestingfacts.quora.com/What-is-the-closest-thing-to-Earth-ever-discovered-in-the-universe-1?ch=10&oid=1477743747284886&share=9c16f892&srid=hIB6L1&target_type=answer
  • "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus." Ludwig Wittgenstein; translated by C.K. Ogden. Chiron Academic Press - Sweden, 2016.
  • "Wittgenstein’s Logical Atomism." Although it has few adherents today, logical atomism was once a leading movement of early twentieth-century analytic philosophy. Different, though related, versions of the view were developed by Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Russell’s logical atomism is set forth chiefly in his 1918 work “The Philosophy of Logical Atomism” (Russell 1956), Wittgenstein’s in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus of 1921 (Wittgenstein 1981).  Plato.stanford.edu, revised September 13, 2022. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wittgenstein-atomism/
  • https://bertrandrussellsociety.org/
  • https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/author/355
  • http://www.iep.utm.edu/russ-eth
  • http://www.iep.utm.edu/russ-log http://www.iep.utm.edu/russ-met
  • https://librivox.org/author/1508
  • https://www.nobelprize.org/laureate/621 https://openlibrary.org/authors/OL112912A
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_skepticism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analogy
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belief#Justified_true_belief
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertrand_Russell 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burden_of_proof_(philosophy)#Proving_a_negative
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_bias
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definitions_of_knowledge#Justified_true_belief
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemology
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extraordinary_claims_require_extraordinary_evidence
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falsifiability
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gettier_problem
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hitchens%27s_razor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justification_(epistemology)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knightian_uncertainty
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necessary_and_sufficient
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraconsistent_logic
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophic_burden_of_proof 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reductio_ad_absurdum
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russell%27s_teapot
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statement_(logic)

 
 
 

               
 

[Referenced / resourced, but not aired / read on-air]

Media, Articles, Bibliographies, Resources & Websites

 
 

  1. "Bertrand Russell Interview on Philosophy (1960)." Philosophy Overdose, Youtube. [13:06] A reupload from the previous channel of a brief interview with Bertrand Russell. More Short Videos and Clips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhP9EhPApKE8v8UVlc7JuuNHwvhkaOvzc. January 11, 2002. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5IEYW5wuK3Y
  2. "What is a Definite Description? (Philosophical Definition)." Carneades, Youtube. [2:03] This video provides a very brief definition of a definite description as defined by Bertrand Russell.  Jan 20, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btLfQX0PJ5k
  3. "Who Was Bertrand Russell? (Famous Philosopher)." Carneades.org, Youtube. [8:17] A brief description of the life and work of Bertrand Russel, Founder of Analytic Philosophy, Inventor of Type Theory, and most influential Philosopher of the 20th Century.  Including descriptions of his logic, theory of truth, philosophy of language and political philosophy. April 16, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uxh8x1LEnQk
  4. "What is Bertrand Russels Barber Paradox?" Concerning Reality, Youtube. [2:14] Logical paradoxes are some of the most infuriating and frustrating problems that we can try to solve. As humans, we always want to find an answer and we naturally assume that an answer must exist. In the case of Bertrand Russell's Barber Paradox, a solution does exist, but it becomes even less obvious than other statements like it.  Proposed by Bertrand Russell in the early 1900s, the barber paradox introduces a town where every single resident must be clean-shaven. There exists a barber in this town who only shaves residents who do not shave themselves. These statements may seem simple at first, but a paradoxical proposition arises: who shaves the barber?  Let's take a look and see just what's going on in this puzzling paradox.... August 29, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lK5dWZZMfeo
  5. "What is Russell's Teapot? (Thought Experiment)." Carneades.org, Youtube. [3:17] A quick explanation of Russell's Teapot, a thought experiment demonstrating that the burden of proof rests on the claimant.  Sponsors: Joshua Furman, Joshua Opell, NBA_Ruby, Eugene SY, Antoinemp1, Antibody, Ismail Fagundes, Adrien Ecoffet, Tom Amedro, Christopher McGevna, Joao Sa, and Dennis Sexton.  Thanks for your support! February 28, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FsN3DCCTqpo
  6. "How Anti-Trans Laws Played a Role in Nex Benedict's Death." Now This Impact, Youtube.  [2:27] Here’s how bullying, anti-LGBTQIA+ laws, and online hate from far-right social media accounts contributed to the tragic death of Nex Benedict. NowThis is your premier news outlet providing you with all the videos you need to stay up to date on all the latest in trending news. From entertainment to politics, to viral videos and breaking news stories, we’re delivering all you need to know straight to your social feeds. We live where you live. February 22, 2024. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBjHF65h8Ps
  7. "Should You Obey the Law? - Philosophy Tube." Philosophy Tube, Youtube. [13:53] s What laws do you have to follow, and why should you follow them? Politics Playlist: https://www.youtu.be.com/playlist?list=PLvoAL-KSZ32fs6KX9IqqZY_0D4YXggcBN. April 3, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dbGPzibXys
  8. "Metaethics: Crash Course Philosophy #32." Crash Course, Youtube. [9:33] We begin our unit on ethics with a look at metaethics. Hank explains three forms of moral realism – moral absolutism, and cultural relativism, including the difference between descriptive and normative cultural relativism – and moral subjectivism, which is a form of moral antirealism. Finally, we’ll introduce the concept of an ethical theory. October 2016. https://youtu.be/FOoffXFpAlU
  9. "Crash Course Ethics." Sacskeptics, Youtube Playlist. 8 videos, last updated on May 17, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLawiwPtG1RWYOivDnlEtvhHgk13bGcVkw
  10. "Learn the Law | Law vs. Ethics." Professor Ehsan Zaffar, Youtube. [6:44] For my LGS1101 Students: What is the difference between ethics and the law? Are all laws ethical? Does a system of ethics always need to conform to the law? (with a cameo by Amazon Echo, talk about privacy!)  Learn more at http://www.ehsan.com. February 22, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnw4-22j29w
  11. "Morals | Ethics Defined." McCombs School of Business, Youtube. [1:56] Morals are society’s accepted principles of right conduct that enable people to live cooperatively. This video is part of Ethics Defined, an animated library of more than 50 ethics terms and concepts from Ethics Unwrapped, available at: https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary. December 18, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WxOGR6HKFs
  12. "What is Ethics? (Ethics Defined, Ethics Meaning) (See link below for more video lectures in Ethics)."  [10:18] This video briefly discusses the meaning, nature, and dynamics of ethics. Broadly construed, ethics is a branch of philosophy that studies the rightness or wrongness of a human action. Full transcript of this video is available at: https://www.stuvia.com/doc/1208357/ethics-definition-and-major-types. June 11, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rr7U49RPpTs
  13. "Dune: How Myths Create Reality." Wisecrack, Youtube. [14:18] Is Dune about sand worms? Sure. But what if the real narrative is about the power of human storytelling? Let's find out in this Wisecrack Edition on Dune: How Myths Create Reality. Written by Dean Varga Hosted by Michael Burns Directed by Michael Luxemburg Edited by Mark Potts Video Title Card by Amanda Murphy Produced by Evan Yee  Additional Production Assistance by Matias Rubio & Olivia Redden. October 18, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QmAizA26KPo
  14. "The Dunning Kruger Effect." Sprouts, Youtube. [4:20] The Dunning Kruger Effect is a cognitive bias that makes people believe they are smarter and more capable than they actually are. The effect is related to people’s general inaptitude to recognize their lack of ability. To learn how this comes about and what you can do to avoid it from happening to you, watch our video. March 31, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FGnb2lgPBA
  15. "The Dunning-Kruger Effect." Aperture, Youtube. [13:21] The Dunning-Kruger Effect - https://aperture.gg/dk Visit https://keeps.com/aperture to get 50% off your first order of hair loss treatment Merch: https://aperture.gg/merch  “I am not a genius, I am just curious.”  - Albert Einstein. October 15, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q9qjX1UhNo0
  16. "Why incompetent people think they're amazing - David Dunning." TED-Ed, Youtube. [5:07]  View full lesson: https://ed.ted.com/lessons/why-incomp...  How good are you with money? What about reading people’s emotions? How healthy are you, compared to other people you know? Knowing how our skills stack up against others is useful in many ways. But psychological research suggests that we’re not very good at evaluating ourselves accurately. In fact, we frequently overestimate our own abilities. David Dunning describes the Dunning-Kruger effect.   Lesson by David Dunning, directed by Wednesday Studio, music and sound by Tom Drew. Check out our Patreon page: https://www.patreon.com/teded. November 9, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pOLmD_WVY-E
  17. "Cognitive Dissonance: Our Battle With Conflicting Beliefs." Sprouts, Youtube. [5:53] Cognitive dissonance is based on the idea that when two ideas are psychologically not consistent with each other, we change them and make them consistent. If the two conflicting ideas are deeply ingrained in our identity, this mental imbalance can become overwhelming and intoxicate our thoughts — and as a result we may believe even the most absurd conspiracy theories. Watch this video about the origins of this idea and its original research from 1954. October 20, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxAu7BTZQRY
  18. "21 Mind Traps : The Ultimate Guide to your most common Thinking errors." Escaping Ordinary (B.C Marx), Youtube. [21:55] You probably think you are in complete control of your decisions and thoughts. But how often are they guided by something else? Something you don’t even notice occurring deep within your mind.  This series explores 21 different cognitive mind traps, fallacies, biases and other phenomenon that exist within your brain. January 19, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYYkRaU0xh8
  19. "21 Mind Traps : The Ultimate Guide to your most common Thinking errors (Part II)." Escaping Ordinary (B.C Marx), Youtube. [20:32] You probably think you are in complete control of your decisions and thoughts. But how often are they guided by something else? Something you don’t even notice occurring deep within your mind.  This series explores 21 cognitive different mind traps, fallacies, biases and other phenomenon that exist within your brain. January 19, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6G1F1KVeiNA
  20. "Asch’s Conformity Experiment on Groupthink." Sprouts, Youtube. [6:01] In the 1950s the psychologist Solomon Asch devised a study to investigate whether peer pressure can be strong enough to change our perception, and make us believe in things that are not true. To do so, he set up a clever experiment on conformity that raises questions about our ability to think freely. July 2, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WkK5eA_qhFk
  21. "Selection Bias: Don't Be Fooled!" Sprouts, Youtube. [6:18] This video was sponsored by Brilliant! To try everything Brilliant has to offer—free—for a full 30 days, visit http://brilliant.org/Sprouts/ . The first 200 of you will get 20% off Brilliant’s annual premium subscription.   Selection bias is a common problem that can occur when analyzing data that is not fully representative of the information intended to be studied. This can lead to inaccurate conclusions and decisions that are not based on the full picture. A classic example of selection bias is the story of the statistician Abraham Wald and the missing US Air Force planes. March 16, 2023. https://youtu.be/_yR5wZsh4YI
  22. "Sapolsky’s Theory of Evolutionary Psychology." Sprouts, Youtube. [4:05] Robert Sapolsky's theory of behavioral biology claims that behind every human action is a biological explanation. The concept centers around the idea that in order to truly understand human behavior, we must study it at all levels — from what happens inside the brain a nano second before a behavior occurred all the way to the time when humans and apes last shared a common ancestor. This is our first video with sound effects — enjoy it on headphones. December 31, 2020. https://youtu.be/SpPWmul6gVs
  23. "Are we in control of our decisions? | Dan Ariely." TED, Youtube. [17:26] Behavioral economist Dan Ariely, the author of Predictably Irrational, uses classic visual illusions and his own counterintuitive (and sometimes shocking) research findings to show how we're not as rational as we think when we make decisions.    TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on TED.com, at http://www.ted.com/translate. Watch a highlight reel of the Top 10 TEDTalks at http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/top10. May 19, 2009. https://youtu.be/9X68dm92HVI
  24. "Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Rewards & Punishments." Sprouts, Youtube. [4:46] Operant conditioning is based on the idea that we can increase or decrease a certain behavior by adding a consequence. June 30, 2020. https://youtu.be/ne6o-uPJarA
  25. "Self-Determination Theory: 3 Basic Needs That Drive Our Behavior." Sprouts, Youtube. [7:01] Self-determination theory argues that people are motivated to learn, grow and change their lives, if their three basic psychological needs are satisfied: competence, connection, and autonomy. People who are unable to fulfill these three needs, may feel amotivation, or need extrinsic rewards to learn or make changes. They often experience little control over their own lives, no sense of self-determination, and often also poor mental health. November 3, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_juPDoa3GBY 
  26. "Determinism vs Free Will: Crash Course Philosophy #24." CrashCourse, Youtube. [10:25] Do we really have free will? Today Hank explores possible answers to that question, explaining theories like libertarian free will and its counterpoint, hard determinism. August 15, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCGtkDzELAI 
  27. "Compatibilism: Crash Course Philosophy #25." CrashCourse, Youtube. [8:54] As we continue explore free will, today Hank considers a middle ground between hard determinism and libertarian free will: compatibilism. This view seeks to find ways that our internally motivated actions can be understood as free in a deterministic world. We’ll also cover Frankfurt Cases and Patricia Churchland’s rejection of the free-or-not-free dichotomy and her focus on the amount of control we have over our actions. August 22, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KETTtiprINU
  28. "Free Will versus Determinism - Psychology A-level Revision Video - Study Rocket." Study Rocket, Youtube. [2:40] Explaining the difference between free will and determinism. January 26, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLWa1znMRAQ
  29. "PHILOSOPHY - Metaphysics: The Problem of Free Will [HD]." Wireless Philosophy, Youtube. [7:43] In this Wireless Philosophy video, Richard Holton (M.I.T.) discusses the classic philosophical problem of free will --- that is, the question of whether we human beings decide things for ourselves, or are forced to go one way or another. He distinguishes between two different worries. One worry is that the laws of physics, plus facts about the past over which we have no control, determine what we will do, and that means we're not free. Another worry is that because the laws and the past determine what we'll do, someone smart enough could know what we would do ahead of time, so we can't be free. He says the second worry is much worse than the first, but argues that the second doesn't follow from the first. May 23, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iSfXdNIolQA
  30. "Are Humans Still Evolving?" Be Smart, Youtube. [11:51] We’re living longer. Dying less. Human life expectancy has doubled in just a couple centuries. Machines and meals and medicines keeping us alive long past the age where we can make babies. Does this mean our species is no longer under the influence of natural selection? Have humans stopped evolving?  May 19, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wEhOZJ55Ve8
  31. "Moral Luck: Crash Course Philosophy #39." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:45] Can two people who make the same bad decision bear different levels of moral responsibility? Today, we try to address this question with the concept of moral luck. Hank explains the difference between moral and causal responsibility and the reasons we assign praise and blame. December 12, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DpDSPVv8lUE
  32. "PHILOSOPHY - Ethics: The Problem of Moral Luck." [6:11] Victor Kumar (Michigan) introduces the problem of moral luck and surveys potential solutions. We see how the problem arises out of a clash between intuitive reactions to cases and an abstract principle of moral responsibility. June 22, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HvqJ-s26ol4
  33. "The Morality of Chance: Thomas Nagel on Moral Luck." Marker Ninja Studios, Youtube. [6:40] How much are we morally responsible for things beyond our control? How much is within our control anyway? How are we to find reason and happiness in a world filled with chance at every twist and turn? Join us as we examine the pecularities in our moral judgements, and discuss their implications for our views of ourselves and others. October 29, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4swnDx8ohws
  34. "Language & Meaning: Crash Course Philosophy #26." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:31] Today we start our unit on language with a discussion of meaning and how we assign and understand meaning. We’ll cover sense and reference, beetles in boxes, and language games.  We’re also getting into the meaning-making game ourselves: bananas are now chom-choms. Pass it on. August 29, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmwgmt7wcv8
  35. "Promising Against the Evidence #1 - Ethics | PHILOSOPHY." Wireless Philosophy, Youtube. [6:13] In this Wireless Philosophy video, Berislav Marušić (Brandeis University) talks about promises to do difficult things, such as the promise to spend the rest of one's life with someone. Beri explains that such promises pose a philosophical problem: they seem to be either insincere, in case one doesn't believe that one will keep them, or irrational, in case one does believe it. He describes how exactly the problem arises and sketches five possible responses.  Thanks for watching! To learn more about philosophy and critical thinking, please subscribe! http://bit.ly/1vz5fK9/ March 30, 2018. https://youtu.be/-V8t8beCnnY
  36. "PHILOSOPHY - Rational Choice Theory: The Prisoner's Dilemma [HD]." Wireless Philosophy, Youtube. [10:33] In this Wireless Philosophy video, Professor Geoffrey Sayre-McCord (UNC-Chapel Hill) explains the prisoner's dilemma. The prisoner's dilemma is a scenario where all parties making rational choices ensures a less desired result for each than if each actor had chosen individually less-preferred options. July 3, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGyZX0VoRpI
  37. "PHILOSOPHY - Epistemology: Rationality [HD]." Wireless Philosophy, Youtube. [6:27] Ram Neta (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) considers whether we're as rational as we often think we are. June 26, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lInyN-WD9u4
  38. "The Nonidentity Problem #1 - Ethics | WIRELESS PHILOSOPHY. [7:06] In this Wireless Philosophy video, Molly Gardner (Bowling Green State University) introduces the nonidentity problem. This problem arises in cases where an individual appears to be wronged by the very action upon which his or her own existence depends. We’ll see why this problem has implications for reproductive choices, genetic engineering, and whether we should take care of the environment for the sake of future generations. September 29, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=abPkNFzxeE4
  39. "The paradox of choice | Barry Schwartz." [20:22] Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. January 16, 2007. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VO6XEQIsCoM
  40. "Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral Development." SPROUTS, Youtube. [6:45] Lawrence Kohlberg's theory claims that our development of moral reasoning happens in six stages: 1. Obedience and Punishment, 2. Self-interest 3. Interpersonal Accord and Conformity 4.Authority and maintaining social order, 5.Social Contract, 6.Universal Ethical principles.  Kohlberg claims that we reach one stage after another showing an ever-deeper understanding of moral questions. The stages themselves are structured in three levels: Pre-Conventional, Conventional and Post-Conventional. November 29, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bounwXLkme4
  41. "Why trust is so important and how we can get more of it? | Dan Ariely | TEDxJaffa." TEDx Talks, Youtube. [22:57] Trust is a crucial, yet often under-valued and under-appreciated force. In this talk Dan describes the importance of trust, some of the building blocks of trust and how we can design mechanisms and society in a way that will give us more trust.    For more information on this particular TEDx event, see http://www.tedxjaffa.com  Despite our intentions, why do we so often fail to act in our own best interest? Why do we promise to skip the chocolate cake, only to find ourselves drooling our way into temptation when the dessert tray rolls around? Why do we overvalue things that we’ve worked to put together? What are the forces that influence our behavior? Dan Ariely, James B. Duke Professor of Psychology & Behavioral Economics at Duke University, is dedicated to answering these questions and others in order to help people live more sensible – if not rational – lives. His interests span a wide range of behaviors, and his sometimes unusual experiments are consistently interesting, amusing and informative, demonstrating profound ideas that fly in the face of common wisdom.  He is a founding member of the Center for Advanced Hindsight, co-creator of the film documentary (Dis)Honesty: The Truth About Lies, and a three-time New York Times bestselling author. His books include Predictably Irrational, The Upside of Irrationality, The Honest Truth About Dishonesty, Irrationally Yours, Payoff and Dollars and Sense.  In 2013 Bloomberg recognized Dan as one of Top 50 Most Influential thinkers.  Dan can be found at http://www.danariely.com This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx. October 20, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHyApqVjddQ
  42. "Assisted Death & the Value of Life: Crash Course Philosophy #45." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:53] As we wrap up Crash Course Philosophy, we’re using the things we’ve learned to explore big issues like the value of life. Today, we’re discussing abortions in cases of fetal abnormality, assisted suicide, and euthanasia. We will consider the standard of substituted judgment and the values people hold on both sides of these issues—values about the sacredness of life, and the importance of a life of quality, as well as the values of personal liberty and avoiding pain. February 6, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IsloHmKvWA
  43. "Poverty & Our Response to It: Crash Course Philosophy #44." CrashCourse, Youtube. [8:53] We’re picking up where we left off last time, exploring the “ethics of care” and how it applies to extreme poverty. Are we responding to global poverty in a moral way? Philosophers like Peter Singer argue that we have an obligation to prevent harm caused by poverty, whereas Garrett Hardin offers a “lifeboat analogy” to explain our obligations to focus on caring for our own.  January 30, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5sknLy7Smo
  44. "What Is a Good Life?: Crash Course Philosophy #46." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:18] In our final episode of Crash Course Philosophy, we consider what it means to live a good life. We’ll look at the myth of Sisyphus, Robert Nozick’s experience machine, Aristotle’s eudaimonistic picture of a good human life, and the existentialists’ view that we each determine the value of our own lives. And we’ll think about how you, too, can live the life of a philosopher. February 13, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ra1Dmz-5HjU
  45. "Kant & Categorical Imperatives: Crash Course Philosophy #35." CrashCourse, Youtube. [10:26] Our next stop on our tour of ethics is Kant’s ethics. Today Hank explains hypothetical and categorical imperatives, the universalizability principle, autonomy, and what it means to treat people as ends-in-themselves, rather than as mere means. November 14, 2016. https://youtu.be/8bIys6JoEDw
  46. "The Paradox of Kant's Law (Ought Implies Can)." Carneades.org, Youtube. [5:48] Deontic Logic (The Logic of Ethics) A description of the paradox for Kant's law (ought implies can) which comes out of Deontic Logic, and several possible solutions.  Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!  Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more! December 6, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjNs4t4GQ2A
  47. "Thomas Nagel - You Should Act Morally as a Matter of Consistency." Apologetics University, Youtube. [9:05] Thomas Nagel argues against a moral skeptic that doesn't care about others. He argues that moral right and wrong is a matter of consistently applying reasons. If you recognize that someone has a reason not to harm you in a certain situation, then, as a matter of consistency, that reason applies to you in a similar situation.  In today's video, I lay out Thomas Nagel's argument, and I raise objections to it. This is the 7th installment in the Exploring Ethics Series. It will help you better understand moral skepticism so you can thoughtfully address it when it arises in everyday life. April 10, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3uoNCciEYao
  48. "PHILOSOPHY - The Problem of Other Minds ." Wireless Philosophy, Youtube. [4:49] In this Wireless Philosophy video, Mason Westfall talks about the problem of other minds, a skeptical challenge to our ability to understand one another.  Check out the video on our website: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?event=video_description&redir_token=QUFFLUhqbk55MDcyU0tYSl9WZGs3dUNVSHVISTFzenpPd3xBQ3Jtc0trYXY5Y2J2blBFbVhmc2JZX0p6cGFwdnpuTXFHOU0wVFhlenM2R1lmODloTlItUWhOMHRCdTJfNTNTUlhWTFZsdkhQSHZqaGN2MTIwVWo5V3c3SUdhdklqTmJBbnRpSEdqYS1DaWNLanlXUHhkank0SQ&q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.wi-phi.com%2Fvideos%2Fthe-problem-of-other-minds%2F&v=mQ0DJYJ8USY.  September 6, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQ0DJYJ8USY
  49. "PHILOSOPHY - Replies to the Problem of Other Minds." Wireless Philosophy, Youtube. [6:43] In this Wireless Philosophy video, Mason Westfall talks about some replies to the problem of other minds. Check out the video on our website: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?event=video_description&redir_token=QUFFLUhqbFpBS1lLdGFmNmJHY29qa2huOHpMVHpMN3NiZ3xBQ3Jtc0trSnpsdzFwZ1Bwd3g1YUtPSEhnSHJKdTZsbHNsTUtEa0M5UGxWYXZXR0NXZHdRWlNYZFJmZlI5TGUtMHJaQTcwWlRZLWZPblNOekF0cGdjNk5XRHk3NERYSUlsSHhhV3J5UFF6RG53OGx1NkRvZGVpSQ&q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.wi-phi.com%2Fvideos%2Freplies-to-the-problem-of-other-minds%2F&v=xVf31DF_lm8. September 10, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVf31DF_lm8
  50. "Solipsism and the Problem of Other Minds." Philosophy Vibe, Youtube. [14:08] Join George and John as they discuss and debate different Philosophical ideas. Today they will be looking into Solipsism and the problem of other minds.  Solipsism in the belief that the only certain knowledge one can have is the existence of their own minds, everything outside of their minds can therefore be doubted. Along with the material world all other minds are brought into doubt. A Solipsist will argue there is no way any other mind can ever be directly perceived or verified and so they have every right to believe they are the only mind that exists. The Solipsist therefore believes they exist alone in reality.  In this video George will be arguing from a Solipsist position whilst John will discuss the flaws with the theory. July 5, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J39xyhtoyTY
  51. '"They’re Made Out of Meat" by Terry Bisson Video Presentation.' ALTman, Youtube. [6:59] Audio from Phonian Worlds. May 25, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oxt1nBBllHo
  52. What is it Like to be a Bat? - the hard problem of consciousness." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [30:54] This is a video about Thomas Nagel's famous 1974 Philosophical Review paper, "What is the like to be a bat?" The paper introduces a novel argument against physicalism. The basic idea is that consciousness embodies (or can only be understood) from a subjective point of view. But physical science, by definition, gets away from subjective perspectives and goes toward objective understanding. So when one tries to give a scientific account of conscious experience, one ends up getting farther away from the very phenomenon that one set out to understand. It is also mentioned that dualism may be no better off at explaining consciousness. This video also includes a list of approximate synonyms for consciousness, including qualia, the phenomenal character of experience, phenomenonolgy, qualia, etc. This is part of an introductory-level philosophy course. September 4, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aaZbCctlll4
  53. "Personal Identity - Philosophy Tube." Philosophy Tube, Youtube. [8:15] Who are you? And how do you know? And what makes it so? We explore the question of what makes you you over time. April 18, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYVFep0xFYs
  54. "DB2019 - Andy and Jacob perform "They're Made Out of Meat" by Terry Bisson." DesertBusFor Hope, Youtube. [5:23] Andy and Jacob perform "They're Made Out of Meat" by Terry Bisson  https://www.desertbus.org Uploaded by the Desert Bus Video Strike Team. November 11, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtUExOoGx7g 
  55. "Why the Backrooms are Terrifying." Tale Foundry, Youtube. [20:42] The Back Rooms are one of the strangest internet phenomena in the last decade. Why are people so gripped by this yellow, parallel dimension office-labyrinth? Why is it so scary? June 23, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PfrtN2LlgSI 
  56. "All the Papers Lied Tonight." MrCreepyPasta, Youtube. [14:00] So this is probably more a Weepy Wednesday kind story but... not sure how to category this on... Original Story can be found here: https://www.reddit.com/r/nosleep/comments/1692on/all_the_papers_lied_tonight/. January 15, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfzxsdUnk8Y
  57. '"Letter to the Landlord" | CreepyPasta Storytime.' MrCreepypasta, Youtube. [17:31] TheJesseClark tells us about a man in a scary situation with a serios reason to complain. September 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngDNlE29o-s
  58. "Short lecture explaining Compositionality." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [2:42] This is a short lecture providing one of the foundational and essential comcepts needed for a semester-long Philosophy of Language college/university course. The compositionality of langauge is that feature of language by which the meanings of whole sentences or phrases are composed out of the meanings of parts of those sentences (i.e., words). This might seem obvious, but it is the thing that allows human beings to generate and understand wholly new or novel sentences, and understand them the very first time they hear them. June 29, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWP6Sv2_8c8
  59. "Problem of Other Minds." [43:05] Philosophy of Mind. Do we know what others are thinking or feeling? Indeed, do we even know that others have thoughts or feelings at all? If so, how? Jack Reynolds gives an introductory talk on this topic and considers two main types of response to the “problem of other minds”: those that are inferential in nature and argue that perception of others alone is an insufficient justification, requiring either an argument by analogy, or an inference to the best explanation; those that are non-inferential in nature, advocating either direct perception of others in some core emotions, or the view that certain experiences that we do have (e.g. shame) presuppose the existence of others.  This was from a talk given by Jack Reynolds back in 2013 at La Trobe University as part of a series on philosophical problems. June 16, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0VDKkH0VOGs
  60. "The Epistemic Regress Problem - Epistemology | WIRELESS PHILOSOPHY." Wireless Philosophy, Youtube. [10:55] "But why?". In this Wireless Philosophy video, Kevin McCain (University of Alabama at Birmingham) explains the Epistemic Regress Problem. The epistemic regress problem arises from the need to give a reason for your belief, a reason for that reason, and so on. After explaining the problem, he explains how the problem has been used to argue in favor of skepticism, and discusses three possible solutions to the problem. October 13, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MAZ8awuILJg
  61. "The Hard Problem of Consciousness." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [24:53] September 9, 2020. This is a lecture video about "The Puzzle of Conscious Experience" by David Chalmers. In this 2002 article from Scientific American, Chalmers distinguishes the easy problems of consciousness from what he calls the hard problem of consciousness. He explains how there are three broad responses to the hard problem (optimistic reductionism, mysterianism, and dualism, though he does not use the term "dualism"), and how all current neuropsychological research only attempts to solve the easy problems. There is also discussion of potential psychophysical laws. This is part of an introductory philosophy course. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7KWFhW0klf4
  62. "PHILOSOPHY - Mind: Mind-Body Dualism [HD]." Wireless Philosophy, Youtube. [8:24] Are we just physical things? Or perhaps just mental things? Maybe both? In this video, Alex Byrne (MIT) explains a modern argument due to Saul Kripke for mind-body dualism. September 19, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMTMtWHclKo
  63. "Personal Identity - Philosophy Tube." Philosophy Tube, Youtube. [8:15] Who are you? And how do you know? And what makes it so? We explore the question of what makes you you over time. April 18, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYVFep0xFYs
  64. 'What Philosophers Mean by "Mental" and "Physical."' Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [3:39] This is just a short video explaining the terms "mental" "physical" as they are used in contemporary academic philosophy of mind. I also give very basic explanations of Dualism and Physicalism. This video functions as a transition within Introduction to Philosophy between the unit where we read all 6 of Descartes' Meditations and the unit where we focus on the mind-body problem. July 13, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3pmVf3Gs70&t=0s
  65. "The Mind-Brain Identity Theory." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [33:51] This is a video lecture about a the 1956 paper "Is Consciousness a Brain Process?" by U.T. Place. This lecture distinguishes the "is"s of identity, prediction, definition, and composition. And I explain how Place uses these distinctions to defend the identity theory from a common line of attack. The central idea is that the mind-brain identity theory is a scientific hypothesis, which cannot be rejected or disproven on logical grounds alone. This is part of an introductory philosophy course. August 21, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zO0slzSux
  66. "Arguments Against Personal Identity: Crash Course Philosophy #20." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:43] How can Daenerys Targaryen help us understand personal identity? Find out as Hank continues our exploration of personal identity, learning about Hume’s bundle theory and Parfit’s theory of survival through psychological connectedness. July 11, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17WiQ_tNld4
  67. "Personal Identity: Crash Course Philosophy #19." CrashCourse, Youtube. [8:32] Today Hank is building on last week’s exploration of identity to focus on personal identity. Does it in reside in your body? Is it in the collective memories of your consciousness? There are, of course, strengths and weaknesses to both of these ideas, and that’s what we’re talking about today. January 27, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trqDnLNRuSc
  68. "Where Does Your Mind Reside?: Crash Course Philosophy #22." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:06] August 1, 2016. Today we continue our unit on identity by asking where the mind resides. Hank explains the mind-body problem and several approaches to the question of where our minds reside, including reductive physicalism, substance dualism, and mysterianism. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SJROTXnmus 
  69. "Personhood: Crash Course Philosophy #21." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:13] Now that we’ve started talking about identity, today Hank tackles the question of personhood. Philosophers have tried to assess what constitutes personhood with a variety of different criteria, including genetic, cognitive, social, sentience, and the gradient theory. As with many of philosophy’s great questions, this has much broader implications than simple conjecture. The way we answer this question informs all sorts of things about the way we move about the world, including our views on some of our greatest social debates. July 25, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxM9BZeRrUI
  70. "The Mind-Brain Identity Theory." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [33:51] This is a video lecture about a the 1956 paper "Is Consciousness a Brain Process?" by U.T. Place. This lecture distinguishes the "is"s of identity, prediction, definition, and composition. And I explain how Place uses these distinctions to defend the identity theory from a common line of attack. The central idea is that the mind-brain identity theory is a scientific hypothesis, which cannot be rejected or disproven on logical grounds alone. This is part of an introductory philosophy course. August 21, 2020.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zO0slzSuxpI
  71. "Language & Meaning: Crash Course Philosophy #26." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:31] Today we start our unit on language with a discussion of meaning and how we assign and understand meaning. We’ll cover sense and reference, beetles in boxes, and language games.  We’re also getting into the meaning-making game ourselves: bananas are now chom-choms. Pass it on. August 29, 2016. https://youtu.be/zmwgmt7wcv8?si=N1Ov3n0XxBd1TEzi 
  72. "Netflix & Chill: Crash Course Philosophy #27." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:10] Last week we talked about language and meaning. Today, Hank explores some of the things that complicate meaning and how we get around that. We’ll explain conversational implicature, the cooperative principle, and the four main maxims of successful communication, as laid out by Paul Grice, as well as performative utterances. September 12, 2016. https://youtu.be/G30m6XDBTh4?si=GXtbdpb_Vxt3VlgC
  73. "Batman & Identity: Crash Course Philosophy #18." CrashCourse, Youtube. [9:08] Hank explores different ways of understanding identity – including the Indiscernibility of Identicals, and essential and accidental properties. In what ways does affect identity? In what ways does it not? What does it mean for a thing to persist over time? June 20, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-TFCMK4i2lo
  74. "Princess Elisabeth's attack on Descartes' Dualist Theory of Mind (from 1643)." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [15:39] This is a video lecture about The Problem of Mental Causation. This is a problem that is at the heart of all of philosophy of mind for the last several hundred years. It was presented by Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia in a letter to Rene Descartes in the spring of 1643. Put very briefly, Princess Elisabeth's point is simply that the mind, which Descartes understands as wholly non-physical/immaterial cannot move the material body because in order for something to move a physical object the mover must itself be an extended physical object capable of physical contact. This is part of an Introduction to Philosophy course. July 13, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJIZzmUpfmk
  75. "René Descartes - Meditation #6 - Proof of the Physical World & Distinction Between Mind and Body." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [28:50] This is a video lecture about the sixth and final Meditation on First Philosophy by Rene Descartes. In it, Descartes argues that the physical world outside of his own mind does exist, though it may be that he is wrong about some of the specific details of physical reality. He does this by arguing that God would be a deceiver if there were no physical world in general, but a few mistakes here or there do not demonstrate that God is a deceiver. He then offers two arguments for Dualism, the theory of mind according to which the mind and the body are two distinct things. The conceivability argument comes first, but it is more complicated, so I don't discuss it here because this is part of an introduction to philosophy. The divisibility argument is discussed at length. The basic idea is that the mind and body cannot be the same because the mind is indivisible while the body is divisible. July 9, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zkfRY1WJHc 
  76. "What is a Counterexample? (and why philosophers use fictional examples)." [10:14] This is a short lecture video explaining one of the most common and most powerful philosophical tools: the counterexample. Counterexamples are examples that are given to disprove a general claim. This video also explains how general claims centrally involving a concept--i.e., those claims about conceptual truths--can be proven false with the use of a fictional or even impossible counterexample. August 17, 2020. https://youtu.be/jPdZ42UX41A?si=SQrz9ELOi0f5VUj9
  77. "Gilbert Ryle attacks Descartes' Dualism as a 'Category Mistake'." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [15:56] This is a lecture video about a selection from Gilbert Ryle objecting to what he calls "the Official Doctrine," which is the dualist theory of mind espoused by Rene Descartes and many other philosophers following him. Ryle claims that dualists are making a 'category mistake'. He explains the idea of a category mistake with a famous example of a visitor to Oxford University. The reading also includes several other examples of category mistakes. When applied to the mind, Ryle is claiming that the dualist's mistake is to think that the mind is in the same logical category as physical objects. Instead it is not some additional thing, but rather just some ways that physical things are arranged and interact. July 14, 2020. https://youtu.be/gA-2Gc3PztI?si=H2T4GuynVbAzxqJX
  78. "The Zombie Argument (from David Chalmers)." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [18:26] This is a lecture video about a short article by Amy Kind, wherein she explains David Chalmers' famous Zombie argument against physicalism. A "zombie" is a philosophical term for a creature that is micro-physically identical to a normal human being, but who doesn't have any consciousness. The argument, briefly and roughly, is that such a creature seems conceivable, which means that such a creature is metaphysically possible. If zombies are possible, then consciousness cannot be identical with any physical state of affairs, meaning that physicalism is false. This video lecture is part of an introductory philosophy course. September 10, 2020. https://youtu.be/VLzmYjviDsk?si=iuvK1pjJL99P3_Ht
  79. "Functionalism." Jeffrey Kaplan, Youtube. [29:24] This is a video lecture about Hilary Putnam's Multiple Realizability argument against the mind-brain identity theory and his argument for the functionalist theory of mind. Functionalism is the theory that being in a mental state just is being a functional state, with certain inputs and outputs, or causes and effects. This is part of an introductory level philosophy course, focusing on the philosophy of mind. August 28, 2020. https://youtu.be/rd8sITBnijg?si=GkTX0HjlTzidJlG0
  80. "What is Physicalism? | Philosophy Glossary." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [5:53] What is physicalism, and what does it say about the mind and consciousness? You'll know in under 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer! October 1, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TnBI9RaC7CA
  81. "What are Qualia?" Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [4:51] Qualia are the mystery element of consciousness: the intrinsic features of conscious experience. What does that mean, how can we understand the idea philosophically, and do they pose a problem for physical theories of the mind? You’ll know in under 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer! November 26, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Wr0WZMpv7g
  82. "Functionalism about the Mind | Philosophy Glossary." [7:13] What is Functionalism, and what's it got to do with the mind? You'll know all about the Functionalist Theory of Mind in 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer! September 10, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=swF4c-IHbQ8
  83. "Behaviourism | Philosophy Glossary." [6:32] What is behaviourism in philosophy? Is it a theory of the mind, or a theory about the meanings of words? What does it say about mental states like belief, and experiences like pain? You'll know in 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer!  Sorry about the sound quality in this one – I completely messed up the recording! August 27, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96Ipwy6Wjuc
  84. "Identity Theory of Mind | Philosophy Glossary," [6:10] What is an Identity Theory in philosophy? And specifically, what is the identity theory of mind? What different kinds of identity theory are there, and what problems do they have? You'll know in 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer!  Sorry about the sound quality in this one – I completely messed up the recording! September 3, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FYCGPzFMeI
  85. "They're Everywhere." MrCreepyPasta, Youtube. [2:31] You guys ready for next week?.... Spring Break SPOOKTACULAR  Check out My New Website for More Creepy Pasta Narrations: http://www.creepypastanetwork.com  Original story: http://creepypasta.wikia.com/wiki/The... April 3, 2013. https://youtu.be/TtD7m-e5Olo?si=OqRSspVEWIt1xl6k
  86. "We Should All Fear The Old Horns" Creepypasta | Scary Stories from Reddit Nosleep." The Dark Somnium, Youtube. [17:58] We Should All Fear The Old Horns is a creepypasta story from the nosleep subreddit. The song in this story is one i wrote called "the old horns" you can listen to it on my music channel:    • "The Old Horns" Dark Cinematic Gregor...    Special thanks to my guest narrator MrblackAA, make sure to check out his channel! March 19, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gcU17DP3C9k
  87. '"How I became a God" Creepypasta | Scary Stories from Reddit Nosleep.' The Dark Somnium, Youtube. [33:08] This is a creepypasta scary story from the nosleep reddit page, written by  BrittonRT, make sure to check out the original story and support the author!https://old.reddit.com/r/nosleep/comments/ii2ntr/how_i_became_a_god/. August 28, 2020. https://youtu.be/LOm_Uw9Ck9c?si=aJReO_RhpWcvwifG
  88. '"If you're on the last bus for the night, there are some rules on how to survive it." Creepypasta.' CreepsMcPasta, Youtube. [25:13] Creepypastas are the campfire tales of the internet. Horror stories spread through Reddit r/nosleep, forums and blogs, rather than word of mouth. Whether you believe these scary stories to be true or not is left to your own discretion and imagination. June 24, 2021. https://youtu.be/OFV81gdy1CM?si=SDMoxMvMNOBLeO5n
  89. '"I'm pretty sure one of us is possessed. Like, almost certain" Creepypasta.' CreepyMcPasta, Youtube. [35:21] Exorcisms are a dangerous job. What's worse is that they can lead to messy results.  If you enjoyed the video, please leave a like. It really helps out.  CREEPYPASTA STORY►by PeteTheSeed: https://www.reddit.com/r/nosleep/comments/al4gup/im_pretty_sure_one_of_us_is_possessed_like_almost/. April 1, 2019. https://youtu.be/lPLanyRxrmI?si=25uouDdPy1_UsPl5
  90. "Contextualism about Knowledge | Philosophy Glossary." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [8:05] What is Contextualism, and what does it say about knowledge and scepticism? You'll know in just over 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer! October 15, 2022. https://youtu.be/Sqef6qjGs-I?si=GsjTgrPIKGK41Frc
  91. "Rationalism | Philosophy Glossary." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [6:22] What is Rationalism, how does it contrast with Empiricism, and what does it say about knowledge and justification? You'll know in just over 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer! October 26, 2022. https://youtu.be/_HzyKsb2fZ4?si=CFQ3AKPhu9XKs-Uv
  92. "Where does knowledge come from?" Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [4:18] What is Empiricism, how does it contrast with Rationalism, and what does it say about knowledge and justification? You'll know in just over 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer! November 2, 2022. https://youtu.be/uDf4uZUgLzI?si=6zBPPqvraJMJWzyx
  93. "What do A Priori / A Posteriori mean? | Philosophy Glossary." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [4:36] Here's the first Philosophy Glossary explainer: what does A Priori mean? You'll know in under 5 minutes!  00:00 - Intro 00:43 - Definitions 00:58 - Example: knowledge of maths 01:59 - Clarifying the definition 03:30 - When these terms come up. July 9, 2022. https://youtu.be/tYfLejwA_Rs?si=fig8WTrhRlbg7qTK
  94. "What are Qualia?" Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [4:51] Qualia are the mystery element of consciousness: the intrinsic features of conscious experience. What does that mean, how can we understand the idea philosophically, and do they pose a problem for physical theories of the mind? You’ll know in under 5 minutes of this Philosophy Glossary explainer! November 26, 2022. https://youtu.be/8Wr0WZMpv7g?si=NaMEsqb-60FARSe9
  95. "Do you know anything?" Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [9:50] External world scepticism questions whether you know anything at all about the world outside your own mind. In this video, we cover what external world scepticism (or skepticism) is, what the arguments for it are, and why many philosophers take it to be a really serious problem. November 19, 2023. https://youtu.be/YRT9dwAEBFE?si=ywRlBt6GC57wjjnS
  96. "Philosophy Glossary." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [19 Videos, last updated December 19, 2022.] https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwSlKSRwxX0rIn4SN9i9pupQMgwAxFPN0
  97. "How to read philosophy." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [15:47] Reading philosophy is unlike reading anything else. It takes a special set of skills to read philosophy successfully, and if you don't have that toolkit, then reading philosophy can get  frustrating. In this video, I'm going to show you the tools that you need to read philosophy successfully. March 18, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9SQS8AdHXI
  98. "Do you know anything?" Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [9:50] External world scepticism questions whether you know anything at all about the world outside your own mind. In this video, we cover what external world scepticism (or skepticism) is, what the arguments for it are, and why many philosophers take it to be a really serious problem. November 19, 2023. https://youtu.be/YRT9dwAEBFE?si=ywRlBt6GC57wjjnS
  99. "I Called Out My WHOLE Family For Preferring My Sister And It Backfired r/Relationships." Mark Narrations, Youtube. [27:03] Relationship Reddit Stories, OP claims his sister is the preferred child of the family and calls her and the rest of the family out for their behaviour but it all backfires. January 21, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGh01f7oV3k
  100. "Wittgenstein and Russell." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [8 videos, updated December 15, 2023] https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwSlKSRwxX0olUW6uwBhZOKcAGa-Zvb4L
  101. "Bertrand Russell." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [16:10] Bertrand Russell was a philosopher, logician, and mathematician, who became a world-famous popular writer on religion, marriage, pacifism, nuclear disarmament, and many other important topics. He’s one of my all-time favourite philosophers.   You can support the channel and help it grow by contributing on my Ko-fi page: https://ko-fi.com/atticphilosophy. October 1, 2023. https://youtu.be/lUtUFeprBiM?si=R3E7B-eB8vLz3g9h
  102. "Wittgenstein." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [21:05] Ludwig Wittgenstein is probably the most famous and influential philosopher of the Twentieth Century. But his philosophy is mysterious and fiendishly difficult to understand. This video tells the story of Wittgenstein's life and his philosophical ideas.  You can support the channel and help it grow by contributing on my Ko-fi page: https:// Ko-fi.com/atticphilosophy. April 15, 2023. https://youtu.be/X_NL-uW2V4c?si=nP_F4ttgXwQB4rns
  103. "Bertrand Russell's Philosophy." Attic Philosophy, Youtube. [17:34] Bertrand Russell was one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th Century. In this video, I explain some of his most important ideas, covering analytic philosophy, realism and idealism, language, knowledge, perception, the mind, ethics, politics, and religion.  You can support the channel and help it grow by contributing on my Ko-fi page: https://ko-fi.com/atticphilosophy. October 14, 2023. https://youtu.be/fJ7kLxnRzBw?si=OJMG9YSbwED3_rOP

 

 

  1. "Ethics Defined (a glossary)." McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, Ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu. Productive discussions have a shared vocabulary. Many scholars contributed to this glossary to provide common ground for enlightened conversation in the realm of ethics and leadership.More than 50 animated two-minute videos define key ethics terms and behavioral ethics concepts. #EducateYourself. https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary
  2. "Ethics." McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, Ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu, accessed January 11, 2022. The term ethics often describes the investigation and analysis of moral principles and dilemmas. Traditionally, philosophers and religious scholars have studied ethics. More recently, scholars from various disciplines have entered the field, creating new approaches to the study of ethics such as behavioral ethics and applied ethics. https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary/ethics
  3. "Morals." "Ethics." McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, Ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu, accessed January 11, 2022. Morals are the prevailing standards of behavior that enable people to live cooperatively in groups. Moral refers to what societies sanction as right and acceptable. https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary/morals
  4. "Ethics vs. Morals." Diffen.com, accessed January 11, 2022. Ethics and morals relate to “right” and “wrong” conduct. While they are sometimes used interchangeably, they are different: ethics refer to rules provided by an external source, e.g., codes of conduct in workplaces or principles in religions. Morals refer to an individual’s own principles regarding right and wrong. https://www.diffen.com/difference/Ethics_vs_Morals
  5. "What’s the Difference Between Morality and Ethics?" Cydney Grannan, Britannica.com. Generally, the terms ethics and morality are used interchangeably, although a few different communities (academic, legal, or religious, for example) will occasionally make a distinction. In fact, Britannica’s article on ethics considers the terms to be the same as moral philosophy. While understanding that most ethicists (that is, philosophers who study ethics) consider the terms interchangeable, let’s go ahead and dive into these distinctions. Accessed January 11, 2022. ttps://www.britannica.com/story/whats-the-difference-between-morality-and-ethics
  6. “If you wish to make an apple pie from scratch, you must first invent the universe.” Carl Sagan, Cosmos. Accessed July 6, 2021. https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/32952-if-you-wish-to-make-an-apple-pie-from-scratch
  7. "Robbers Cave Experiment." Theodore, Editor, Practicalpie.com. Did you read Lord of the Flies in middle school or high school? Even if you skimmed over the book, you might remember what it’s about. A group of boys find themselves stranded on a desert island without adult supervision. As they try to establish a society, they turn on each other in desperation, and things get brutal. Accessed December 5, 2021. https://practicalpie.com/robbers-cave-experiment
  8. "Open Education Sociology Dictionary: Thomas theorem." Sociologydictionary.com, accessed September 14, 2021.Definition of Thomas Theorem(noun) The theory that if we define something as real, or believe that something is real, it is real in its consequences. https://sociologydictionary.org/thomas-theorem/
  9. "Grice's Maxims." Sas.upenn.edu, accessed August 3, 2021. https://www.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/dravling/grice.html
  10. "The View From Halfway Down (Poem)." Fandom.com, accessed June 20, 2021. The View From Halfway Down is a symbolic poem read by Secretariat in The View from Halfway Down, in Season 6. https://bojackhorseman.fandom.com/wiki/The_View_From_Halfway_Down_(Poem)
  11. "Wubba Lubba dub-dub." Wubba Lubba Dub-Dub is Rick's catchphrase, which he recurrently uses in the show, mostly in season one. He uses this phrase every time he's happy or makes a joke. It also means “I am in great pain.” Rickandmorty.fandom.com, accessed July 12, 2021. https://rickandmorty.fandom.com/wiki/Wubba_Lubba_dub-dub
  12. "Deconstructive Criticism." Tatiana Tatum-Fisher, Wp.odi.edu. Deconstructive criticism follows the belief that objects have meaning because that it was it has been defined as through language.  Deconstruction uses the concept of binaries in which one object has been given a sort of privilege, the better appeal i.e. good/bad, love/hate, white/black, and  male/female.  In texts these binaries form the motif, or theme of a story. However the theory of deconstruction focuses on how the language of the text may appeal to one binary, but has signs that it favors the opposite, but not necessarily the privileged binary.  Using this concept theorists judge such texts to have “dismantled” themselves. Accessed August 29, 2021. https://sites.wp.odu.edu/tatum-fisherengl333/theory-1/ 
  13. "Deconstruction." Md Rajibul Hasan, Blogspot.com. Deconstruction is a philosophical movement and theory of literary criticism that questions traditional assumptions about certainty, identity, and truth; asserts that words can only refer to other words; and attempts to demonstrate how statements about any text subvert their own meanings: "In deconstruction, the critic claims there is no meaning to be found in the actual text, but only in the various, often mutually irreconcilable, 'virtual texts' constructed by readers in their search for meaning" (Rebecca Goldstein). April 12, 2010. https://allrfree.blogspot.com/2010/04/deconstruction.html
  14. "Deconstruction." Nasrullah Mambrol, Literariness.org. Deconstruction involves the close reading of texts in order to demonstrate that any given text has irreconcilably contradictory meanings, rather than being a unified, logical whole. As J. Hillis Miller, the preeminent American deconstructionist, has explained in an essay entitled Stevens’ Rock and Criticism as Cure (1976), “Deconstruction is not a dismantling of the structure of a text, but a demonstration that it has already dismantled itself. Its apparently solid ground is no rock but thin air.” March 22, 2016. https://literariness.org/2016/03/22/deconstruction/
  15. "How to Deconstruct a Text." Editors-Authors, Wikihow.com. Deconstruction aims to disturb in order to discover. By deconstructing a text, you learn to read beyond a text's straightforward content and uncover new meanings and truths. Deconstruction has intellectual and political implications. Deconstructing a text is a common assignment given to students of literature, literary theory, film, communications, or postmodernist thought.Whenever deconstruction finds a nutshell—a secure axiom or a pithy maxim—the very idea is to crack it open and disturb this tranquility - John D Caputo. Last updated December 20, 2020. https://www.wikihow.com/Deconstruct-a-Text#References
  16. "How to Deconstruct a Text." Scott Neuffer, Penandthepad.com. Deconstruction is a philosophical movement spearheaded by French thinker Jacques Derrida and other critics during the 1960s. As a literary theory, it focuses on exposing cultural biases in all texts, whether a passage in a popular book or the flashing script of a television ad. Readers engaged in deconstruction analyze words and sentences to identify inherent biases and call into question commonplace interpretations of the text. While this may sound presumptuous or cynical on the front end, deconstruction isn’t about destroying meaning. Rather, it’s about undermining ingrained assumptions to view things in a new light.Oppose Prevailing WisdomThe first thing you’ll have to do is question the common meaning or prevailing theories of the text you're deconstructing. When deconstructing, you need to start from a place of critical opposition. The only assumption you can make is that the meaning of the text is unstable and what others have told you about it is based on their own assumptions. In other words, you need to be skeptical from the onset. If you’re deconstructing Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 18, which famously begins, “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day,” you can’t assume the poet is talking about a woman or that a woman is inherently an apt object for summery figurative language. What if the speaker of the poem is gay or is being sarcastic about an ex-lover? Unhinge yourself from traditional interpretations and dig into the specifics of the text. Like a scientist on the fringe of discovery, look for evidence to support alternative views.Expose Cultural BiasPractitioners of the deconstructive method refer to cultural biases in texts in a number of lofty ways, calling them "binaries" and "hierarchical oppositions." To understand these interchangeable terms, remember that certain words and the concepts they represent are often privileged, or emphasized more, than their oppposite words and concepts -- rich over poor, male over female, enlightened over ignorant. For instance, if a poet personifies everything in nature -- the sun, the moon, the sea -- as being male, you might conclude that the text has a male bias. If a novelist portrays white European culture as “learned” and “sophisticated” in contrast to other cultures of the world, you might suspect a Western, Euro-centric bias in the text. It’s your job to root out these biases.Analyze Sentence StructureOne way to investigate underlying meaning of a text is to analyze sentence structure, specifically the arrangement of subject and object. Ask yourself if a person or thing represented as an object in the text makes it subordinate to the subject in some way. For instance, if a novel's male protagonist is always the initiator of action rather than the recipient -- “He took her to the store; he bought her earrings; he found some food she would like” -- the recurrent sentence structure may reinforce the protagonist’s power over the dependent character. Look for these patterns and determine if the points of view of other characters are limited to favor cultural bias.Play With Possible October 3, 2023: MeaningsAfter you’ve analyzed the text for biases, see if your discoveries support a new interpretation. While many associate deconstruction with destruction of meaning, the opposite is true. According to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by assessing the biases of a given text -- the social and historical conventions that helped produce it -- you’ve opened up the words and sentences to an infinite amount of possible, if partial, readings. Returning to Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 18, the last couplet reads: “So long as men can breathe or eyes can see / So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.” While many have interpreted these lines to convey the eternal power of poetry, the deconstructive reader might find more irony: In his overbearing wish to immortalize his beloved, the poet has betrayed not only the futility of love poetry but the entire chivalric tradition that values youth and beauty over maturity and wisdom. Accessed August 29, 2021. https://penandthepad.com/deconstruct-text-2122472.html
  17. "Ladder of Escape." Alma Royale, Wordpress.com. 'For the absurd man it is not a matter of explaining and solving, but of experiencing and describing. Everything begins with lucid indifference.' Albert Camus.August 13, 2015. https://ladderofescape.wordpress.com/2015/08/13/lucid-indifference/
  18. "Oxford Reference: Thomas Theorem." Oxfordreference.com, accessed September 14, 2021. A concept formulated by the American sociologist William Isaac Thomas (1863–1967) that ‘“*facts” do not have a uniform existence apart from the persons who observe and interpret them. Rather, the “real” facts are the ways in which different people come into and define situations’. Famously, as he and his research assistant and wife Dorothy Swaine Thomas (1899–1977) put it in 1928, ‘If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences’. Such a ‘subjective’ definition of the situation by a social actor, group, or subculture is what Merton came to call a self-fulfilling prophecy (as in cases of ‘mind over matter’). It is at the heart of symbolic interactionism. See also constructionism; frame of reference; framing; perspectivism. https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803104247382
  19. "Oxford Reference: Self-fulfilling prophecy." Oxfordreference.com. A concept introduced into sociology by Robert Merton (see his Social Theory and Social Structure, 1957), and allied to William Isaac Thomas's earlier and famous theorem that ‘when people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences’. Merton suggests the self-fulfilling prophecy is an important and basic process in society, arguing that ‘in the beginning, a false definition of the situation evokes a new behaviour which makes the originally false conception come true. [It] perpetuates a reign of error’. See also self-destroying prophecy; unintended or unanticipated consequences. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100453294


  • https://bertrandrussellsociety.org/
  • https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/author/355 
  • http://www.iep.utm.edu/russ-eth
  • http://www.iep.utm.edu/russ-log
  • http://www.iep.utm.edu/russ-met
  • https://librivox.org/author/1508
  • https://www.nobelprize.org/laureate/621
  • https://openlibrary.org/authors/OL112912A
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorality
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytic_philosophy
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_ethics
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument_from_ignorance
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attribution_bias
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertrand_Russell
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bias
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burden_of_proof_(philosophy)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Epistemology
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causality
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_conduct
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cogito_ergo_sum
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_bias
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convergent_thinking
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divergent_thinking
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergentism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epiphenomenalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemology
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemology#Philosophical_skepticism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_dilemma
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falsifiability 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_will
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functionalism_(philosophy_of_mind)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Rule 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Good
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graded_absolutism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hitchens%27s_razor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunter_versus_farmer_hypothesis
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_know_that_I_know_nothing
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idealism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immorality
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incrementalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ineffable
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intentional_community
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Is%E2%80%93ought_problem
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justification_(epistemology)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knightian_uncertainty
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Know_thyself
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Kohlberg%27s_stages_of_moral_development
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_atomism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_holism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_positivism 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metacognition
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meta-ethics
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meta-ethics#Moral_epistemology
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mindfulness 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_agent
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_autonomy
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_character
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_constructivism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_dilemma
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_idiocy
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_luck 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_nihilism#The_scope_question
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_psychology
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_realism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_reasoning
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_responsibility 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_skepticism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_universalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morality
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-cognitivism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normative_ethics
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinary_language_philosophy
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ought_implies_can
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathology
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People-first_language
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_identity
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenomenology_(psychology)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_razor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_skepticism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy_of_mind
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prisoner%27s_dilemma
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_of_induction
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_of_mental_causation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_of_other_minds
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rational_agent
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realistic_conflict_theory
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocity_(evolution)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russell%27s_teapot
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%83s%C4%81ra
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagan_standard
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schema_(psychology)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-actualization
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-agency
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-awareness
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-concept
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-determination_theory 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantics 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skepticism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognition
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_contract
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_construct
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stochastic_terrorism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terror_management_theory
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_descriptions 
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_mind
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/They%27re_Made_Out_of_Meat
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought_experiment
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twin_Earth_thought_experiment
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtue_ethics
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoo_hypothesis

 

 

 

 





M   U   S   I   C       P   L   A   Y   L   I   S   T   S





FreedomWalker's Playlist:



  1. Indra: “Nuttin' They Can Say
  2. Aza Lineage: “More Love”
  3. Lutan Fyah: “Rasta Reggae Music
     
     

beetle's Playlist:

 

  1. Placido Domingo & Mandy Patinkin: “Man of La Mancha (Man of La Mancha Soundtrack)
  2. Dion: “Ruby Baby


L   Y   R   I   C   S        S   O   U   R   C   E   (S)

 
 
  • Geniuslyrics.com